Hanson conducts his own 5th Symphony, plus music by Morton Gould and Samuel Barber
More American treasures from one of the finest interpreters of this music
Review (Barber & Gould - original LP issue)
I'm not sure that the two sides of this record fit very well together; but each, considered separately, is certainly a winner. The recording is throughout clear and vital, though perhaps lacking something in warmth; a deficiency that does altogether less damage here than it would in the classics, and which is in any case set off by many virtues in other respects—the brass and percussion in particular coming off extremely well.
Samuel Barber is the only contemporary American composer even reasonably well represented in the English catalogues but even so, the gaiety of the School for Scandal overture throws for us a new light on him. The quick-witted vein is an attractive one, and the piece is well presented by the orchestra.
So is the Adagio for Strings. This is more familiar; as well as some SPs there is a LP (Decca LX3042) called, I suppose unarguably correctly, Music of the Twentieth Century, which includes this piece in a hurried but rich-toned performance by the Boyd Neel Orchestra, along with an enveloping hum and some incongruous piano and 'cello pieces. Here there is no aggressive hum, though the string sound is not quite so rich as on the Decca ; but principally there is a considerably more intense performance, which reveals the moving elegy the better.
The Essay for Orchestra is not quite so convincing; it seems on the short side for what it has to say—the allegro molto section does not immediately declare itself capable of supporting the weight of the andante sostenuto which precedes it. But the three pieces taken together, and most admirably performed, give a most useful conspectus of Barber's achievement in the smaller forms.
One had always supposed that Morton Gould must have written something other than the Pavane, and here it is. A four-movement Sinfonietta is no novelty, but one based on four Latin-American dances is orchestral arrangements of a rumba, tango, guaracha, and conga by good musicians are no novelty, but ones done with musical rather than commercial ends in view seem, unfortunately, to be so.
Those four dances form the four movements, taking on something like the classical balance. The rumba has a first-movement fullness; the tango, of the Argentinian variety, is developed into a singularly attractive slow movement, with wisps of sound that are so wholly appropriate, but which could never be written for the audiences to whom Gould, or any other first-class arranger, normally has to direct his music, tango-style or otherwise. A guaracha is less familiar, but it forms an effective scherzo; the finale is a conga that begins and ends in a blaze, but has sober expanses in the middle, and is not quite the irresistible "orgiastic" affair the sleevenote led my baser instincts to hope for.
The whole work is played in great style the Eastman-Rochester Symphony Orchestra seem completely at home with it. Few symphony orchestras can encompass this sort of music wholly satisfactorily - usually the brass section make it clear that the transition is too much of a strain. But here the style is changed with no apparent strain at all; and the brass and percussion are certainly beautifully caught by the fine recording.
The choice of coupling remains curious. But it has, arguably, one advantage; with two sides so diverse and each so good in its own way, it would be cantankerous indeed to dislike both of them at once.
M.M. - The Gramophone, June 1954 (link)
Notes on the recordings:
The Barber and Gould recordings, both made on the same day in the autumn of 1952, displayed a distinct loss of top-end treble. In the case of the Gould this was particularly acute with a very steep drop-off of around 15dB above 10kHz that suggests a quite severe filter was used in mastering the original LP. I've done what I can to try and restore what remains above these frequencies in both recording, more successfully perhaps in the Barber. The 1955 recordings of Hanson's own works show a more typical "Living Presence" lift of the lower treble, though happily not as severe as on some of their recordings of this era, and it's an anomaly which happily makes for lower hiss levels after XR remastering has corrected the tonal balance.
All of the recordings displayed degrees of pitch instability consistent with the tape recording equipment of the day, allowing the orchestral tuning to wander slowly between about A=440Hz and A=446Hz. Standard concert pitch seemed a reasonable point to re-tune the recordings to, something which appeared to be confirmed by the copious amounts of mains electrical hum (with multiple harmonics) I have removed. Each of these recordings was transferred from original, near-mint 1950s US Mercury pressings.
Biographical notes from Wikipedia
Howard Harold Hanson (October 28, 1896 – February 26, 1981) was an American composer, conductor, educator, music theorist, and champion of American classical music. As director for 40 years of the Eastman School of Music, he built a high quality school and provided opportunities for commissioning and performing American music. He won a Pulitzer Prize for one of his works and received numerous other awards.
Early life and education
Hanson was born in Wahoo, Nebraska to Swedish immigrant parents, Hans and Hilma (Eckstrom) Hanson. In his youth he studied music with his mother. Later, he studied at Luther College in Wahoo, Nebraska, receiving a diploma in 1911, then at the Institute of Musical Art, the forerunner of the Juilliard School, inNew York City, where he studied with the composer and music theorist Percy Goetschius in 1914. Afterward he attended Northwestern University, where he studied composition with church music expert Peter Lutkin and Arne Oldberg in Chicago. Throughout his education, Hanson studied piano, cello and trombone. Hanson earned his BA degree in music from Northwestern University in 1916, where he began his teaching career as a teacher's assistant.
In 1916, Hanson was hired for his first full-time position as a music theory and composition teacher at the College of the Pacific in California. Only three years later, the college appointed him Dean of the Conservatory of Fine Arts in 1919. In 1920, Hanson composed The California Forest Play, his earliest work to receive national attention. Hanson also wrote a number of orchestral and chamber works during his years in California, including Concerto da Camera, Symphonic Legend, Symphonic Rhapsody, various solo piano works, such as Two Yuletide Pieces, and the Scandinavian Suite, which celebrated his Lutheranand Scandinavian heritage.
In 1921 Hanson was the first winner of the Prix de Rome in Music (the American Academy's Rome Prize), awarded for both The California Forest Play and his symphonic poem Before the Dawn. Thanks to the award, Hanson lived in Italy for three years. During his time in Italy, Hanson wrote a Quartet in One Movement, Lux Aeterna, The Lament for Beowulf (orchestration Bernhard Kaun), and his Symphony No. 1, "Nordic", the premiere of which he conducted with the Augusteo Orchestra on May 30, 1923. The three years Hanson spent on his Fellowship at the American Academy were, he considered, the formative years of his life, as he was free to compose, conduct without the distraction of teaching - he could devote himself solely to his art.
(It has been incorrectly stated that Hanson studied composition and/or orchestration with Ottorino Respighi, who studied orchestration with Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. Hanson's unpublished autobiography refutes the statement, attributed to Ruth Watanabe, that he had studied with Respighi.)
Upon returning from Rome, Hanson's conducting career expanded. He made his premiere conducting the New York Symphony Orchestra in his tone poem North and West. In Rochester, New York in 1924, he conducted his Symphony No. 1. This performance brought him to the attention of George Eastman.
Eastman chose Hanson to be director of the Eastman School of Music. Business master George Eastman, inventor of the Kodak camera and roll film, was also a major philanthropist; he used some of his great wealth to endow the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester.
Hanson held the position of director for forty years, during which he created one of the most prestigious music schools in America. He accomplished this by improving the curriculum, bringing in better teachers, and refining the school's orchestras. Also, he balanced the school's faculty between American and European teachers, even when this meant passing up composer Béla Bartók. Hanson offered a position to Bartók teaching composition at Eastman, but Bartók declined as he did not believe that one could teach composition. Instead, Bartók wanted to teach piano at the Eastman School, but Hanson already had a full staff of piano instructors.
In 1925, Hanson established the American Composers Orchestral Concerts. Later, he founded the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra, which consisted of first chair players from the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and selected students from the Eastman School. He followed that by establishing the Festivals of American Music. Hanson made many recordings (mostly for Mercury Records) with the Eastman-Rochester Orchestra, not only of his own works, but also those of other American composers such as John Alden Carpenter, Charles Tomlinson Griffes, John Knowles Paine, Walter Piston, and William Grant Still. Hanson estimated that more than 2000 works by over 500 American composers were premiered during his tenure at the Eastman School.
To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Serge Koussevitzky commissioned Hanson's Symphony No. 2, the "Romantic", and premiered it on November 28, 1930. This work was to become Hanson's best known. One of its themes is performed at the conclusion of all concerts at theInterlochen Center for the Arts. Now known as the "Interlochen Theme", it is conducted by a student concertmaster after the featured conductor has left the stage. Traditionally, no applause follows its performance. It is also best known for its use in the end credits of the 1979 Ridley Scott film Alien.
In some ways Hanson's opera Merry Mount (1934) may be considered the first fully American opera. It was written by an American composer and an American librettist on an American story, and was premiered with a mostly American cast at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 1934. The Opera received fifty curtain calls at its Met premiere, a record that still stands. In 1935 Hanson wrote "Three Songs from Drum Taps", based on the poem by Walt Whitman.
Hanson was elected as a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1935, President of the Music Teachers' National Association from 1929 to 1930, and President of the National Association of Schools of Music from 1935 to 1939.
From 1946 to 1962 Hanson was active in United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). UNESCO commissioned Hanson's Pastorale for Oboe and Piano, and Pastorale for Oboe, Strings, and Harp, for the 1949 Paris conference of the world body.
Frederick Fennell, conductor of the Eastman Wind Ensemble, described Hanson's first band composition, the 1954 Chorale and Alleluia as "the most awaited piece of music to be written for the wind band in my twenty years as a conductor in this field". Chorale and Alleluia is still a required competition piece for high school bands in the New York State School Music Association's repertoire list. It is one of Hanson's most frequently recorded works.
From 1961-1962, Hanson took the Eastman Philharmonia, a student ensemble, on a European tour which passed through Paris, Cairo, Moscow, and Vienna, among other cities. The tour showcased the growth of serious American music for Europe and the Middle East.
Hanson met Margaret Elizabeth Nelson at her parents' summer home on Lake Chautauqua in the Chautauqua Institution in New York. Hanson dedicated the Serenade for Flute, Harp, and Strings, to her; the piece was his musical marriage proposal, as he could not find the spoken words to propose to her. They married on July 24, 1946 at her parents' summer home in Chautauqua Institution.
Legacy and honors
- Hanson was an initiate of two chapters of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity: the Iota Chapter at Northwestern University in 1916, and the Alpha Nu Chapter at Eastman in 1928. He was recognized as a national honorary member in 1930, and presented with the Charles E. Lutton Man of Music Awardat the national convention in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1954.
- After he composed the Hymn of the Pioneers to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the first Swedish settlement in Delaware, Hanson was selected as a Fellow of the Royal Swedish Academy in 1938.
- In 1944, Hanson was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Symphony No. 4, subtitled Requiem.
- In 1945, he became the first recipient of the Ditson Conductor's Award for his commitment to American music.
- In 1946, Hanson was awarded the George Foster Peabody Award "for outstanding entertainment programming" for a series he presented on the Rochester, New York radio station WHAM in 1945.
- In 1953, Hanson helped to establish the Edward B. Benjamin Prize "for calming and uplifting music" written by Eastman students. Each submitted score was read by Hanson and the Eastman Orchestra. Winners of the Benjamin Prize appeared on Hanson's recording Music for Quiet Listening.
- In 1960, Hanson published Harmonic Materials of Modern Music: Resources of the Tempered Scale, a book that would lay the foundation for musical set theory. Among the many notions considered was what Hanson called the isomeric relationship, now usually termed Z-relationship.
- Hanson was on the Board of Directors of the Music Educators National Conference from 1960 to 1964.
- Hanson's Song of Democracy, on a Walt Whitman text, was performed at the inaugural concert for incoming U.S. President Richard Nixon in 1969. Hanson proudly noted this was the first inaugural concert to feature only American music.
- In recognition of Hanson's achievements, the Eastman Kodak company donated $100,000 worth of stock to the Eastman School of Music in 1976. Hanson stipulated that the gift be used to fund the Institute of American Music.
- Hanson was a Distinguished Nebraskans Award Recipient in 1976.
Hanson's students include John Davison, John La Montaine, Samuel Jones, H. Owen Reed, Kenneth Gaburo, Donald O. Johnston, Martin Mailman, Gloria Wilson Swisher, Robert Washburn, Homer Keller, John White, David Borden, Emma Lou Diemer, Ron Nelson, and Bill Pursell.
Excerpts from his Symphony #2 were used to accompany several exterior sequences and the end credits in the released versions of Ridley Scott's 1979 horrormovie Alien without his permission, but Hanson decided not to fight it in court.—they replaced certain sections of the late Jerry Goldsmith's original score at the behest of 20th Century Fox. This highlighted music can still be found on most DVD versions of Alien.
From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Hanson